This chapter covers how to determine and report positions on the ground in terms of their locations on a map. Knowing where you are (position fixing) and being able to communicate that knowledge is crucial to successful land navigation as well as to the effective employment of direct and indirect fire, tactical air support, and medical evacuation. It is essential for valid target acquisition; accurate reporting of NBC contamination and various danger areas; and obtaining emergency resupply. Few factors contribute as much to the survivability of troops and equipment and to the successful accomplishment of a mission as always knowing where you are. The chapter includes explanations of geographical coordinates, Universal Transverse Mercator grids, the military grid reference system, and the use of grid coordinates.
In a city, it is quite simple to find a location; the streets are named and the buildings have numbers. The only thing needed is the address. However, finding locations in undeveloped areas or in unfamiliar parts of the world can be a problem. To cope with this problem, a uniform and precise system of referencing has been developed.
United States Military Grid Reference System
Locate a Point Using Grid Coordinates
Locate a Point Using the Military Grid Reference System
Grid Reference Box
Other Grid Systems